Yogendra Yadav has served as a professor of Political science at Punjab University, Chandigarh (1985-1993). Between 1995-2002, Yogendra Yadav was the founder-convenor of the Lokniti network and the founder-director of the CSDS Lokniti research programme on comparative democracy between 1997 and 2003.

Since 1996, he has been a psephologist and political analyst as well. Yogendra Yadav has been associated with Lokniti and the Publics and Policies programme of Centre for Study of Developing Studies (CSDS). In 2004, he was appointed a Senior Fellow at the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies.

Yogendra Yadav was appointed as a member of the National Advisory Council for the implementation of the Right to Education (RTE) Act 2010. He has been involved in the revival of survey-based studies of Indian elections, the renewal of the National Election Study series, and the creation of the Lokniti network of scholars.

He has co-authored the book Crafting State-Nations: India and Other Multinational Democracies (2011), and two others on democracy and electoral politics. Yogendra Yadav has written school textbooks and has served on several policy advisory bodies and has served as a member of the University Grants Commission.

In 2012, he joined the Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) and served as a member of the National Executive of the party. After leaving AAP in 2015, Yadav along with other activists formed Swaraj Abhiyan. In July 2016, Swaraj Abhiyan formed its political front Swaraj India of which Yogendra Yadav is serving as the National President.